In summary, modern neuroimaging has allowed to detect several functional, structural and metabolic changes affecting multiple elements of the visual network in migraineurs, both with and without aura. These abnormalities help explain some of the key features of the condition, such as abnormal sensory processing, photophobia and the aura phenomenon, and further link it to the growingly recognized neurological syndrome of visual snow. In this condition, which is likely on a similar pathophysiological spectrum as migraine, multiple elements (i.e., cortical hypermetabolism, thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia, brain network dysfunctions) could be at play in the generation of a persistent visual illusion.
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