A proposed model for visual snow pathophysiology. Altered peripheral visual stimulation or a form of genetic predisposition could induce dysrhythmic connections between thalamic structures and cortical visual areas. The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and pulvinar (Pv) in particular are directly connected to motion area V5 and the lingual gyrus (LG). Relevant to visual snow biology is the motion processing network, which is composed of areas within the primary visual cortex (V1/V2), area V3A within the cuneus (Cu), area V5 located ventrolaterally among the lateral occipital sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus, and Brodmann area 7 in the precuneus (Pc). Structures pertaining to the default mode network (PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; Pc; mPFC, middle prefrontal cortex) and/or the salience network (AI, anterior insula; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex) are involved in salience and interoception. Disruption of these networks, possibly through altered connectivity between cortical areas, could also play a role in visual snow pathophysiology. See main text for a more in-depth explanation.